Black death research paper

During the spring, the Batumi eddy forms in the southeastern corner of the sea. He also thought the Black Sea was called "inhospitable" before Greek colonization because it was difficult to navigate and because its shores were inhabited by savage tribes.

Likewise, inflow of the Mediterranean with salinity The modern basin is divided into two sub-basins by a convexity extending south from the Crimean Peninsula.

Below the pycnocline is the Deep Water mass, where salinity increases to The Black Sea only experiences water transfer with the Mediterranean Seaso all inflow and outflow occurs in the Bosphorus and Dardanelles.

Fresher surface water is the product of the fluvial inputs, and this makes the Black Sea a positive sea. The Euxine abyssal plain in the centre of the Black Sea reaches a maximum depth of 2, metres 7, The intra-annual strength of these features is controlled by seasonal atmospheric and fluvial variations.

Weak geothermal heating and long residence time create a very thick convective bottom layer. During periods of high surface productivity, short-lived algal blooms form organic rich layers known as sapropels.

This allows for turbulent mixing of the two layers. Modelling shows the release of the hydrogen sulfide clouds in the event of an asteroid impact into the Black Sea would pose a threat to health—or even life—for people living on the Black Sea coast.

Inflow from the Mediterranean has a higher salinity and density than the outflow, creating the classical estuarine circulation.

It is the remnant of the winter surface mixed layer. This means that inflow of dense water from the Mediterranean occurs at the bottom of the basin while outflow of fresher Black Sea surface-water into the Marmara Sea occurs near the surface.

Because of the extreme stratification, it is classified as a salt wedge estuary. Scientists have reported an annual phytoplankton bloom that can be seen in many NASA images of the region.

This layer is composed of cool, salty surface waters, which are the result of localized atmospheric cooling and decreased fluvial input during the winter months.

Outside of the Rim Current, numerous quasi-permanent coastal eddies are formed as a result of upwelling around the coastal apron and "wind curl" mechanisms. Mesoscale activity in the peripheral flow becomes more pronounced during these warmer seasons and is subject to interannual variability.

Within this feature, two smaller cyclonic gyres operate, occupying the eastern and western sectors of the basin.

The net input of freshwater creates an outflow volume about twice that of the inflow.The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.

It is supplied by a number of major rivers, such as the Danube, Dnieper, Southern Bug, Dniester, Don, and the a third of Europe drains into the Black Sea, including the countries of Austria, Belarus. A fascinating work of detective history, The Black Death traces the causes and far-reaching consequences of this infamous outbreak of plague that spread across the continent of Europe from to A fascinating work of detective history, The Black Death traces the causes and far-reaching consequences of this infamous outbreak of .

Black death research paper
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